Conveyor belt: Understanding how conveyor belts are made will help you to properly maintain the whole conveyor belt running and protect your belting investment to prevent lost. It will also help you in selecting the best belt for your application so that the productivity is high.
Basically firstly need to know that a conveyor belt consists of a reinforced member, or carcass, and protective covers. Different type and strength of these part group different strength of conveyor belt.
Figure 1 Section of a conveyor belt
THE REINFORCED MEMBER OR CONSTRUCTION
A conveyor belt carcass can be made up of woven fabric,canvas or steel cable.
The strength of a rubber belt can be increased by combining several plies of fabric in the finished carcass or by increasing the fabric strength in the same number of plies; a 3 ply, 110 pound fabric belt has a per inch of width rating of 149Kg per 25mm width whereas a 3 ply 150 pound fabric construction is 204Kg per 25mm width. Each individual ply is covered with rubber skim coats that are joined together under pressure. Following application of the covers the entire unit is cured to form a lasting bond.
The quality of modern textiles, adhesives, and manufacturing techniques makes separation of these elements virtually impossible. However, if the carcass is penetrated in operation, moisture and/or abrasive materials can cause separation of the plies. Excessive wear on belt edges, which is usually the result of poor conveyor maintenance or improper belt training, can also initiate a ply separation. Constructions are typically cut edge, – a development that has been made possible with newer adhesive systems and synthetic fabrics.
Conveyor belting is designed for strength, impact, and abrasion resistance. However, it can be damaged in several ways. Belt edges can rub against rubber skirting boards or conveyor frames. What’s more, spilled material on the return side can damage pulleys, idlers, and belting. Tension settings that are too high or too low can also adversely affect belt performance. So these above inevitable damages during the conveyor belting running need timely examination and quickly maintenance to keep the conveyor machine always running steady productivity.
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The function of covers is to protect the carcass from impact, abrasion and environmental factors. As with carcasses, many cover compounds designed for different service applications are available in the market. And the compounds must be perfect combine with the reinforced layer as the different materials to prevent split during running.
In selecting covers, transport materials, temperature, speed, impact force, oil, chemical and loads must be considered so that limitations of carcasses and covers are not exceeded. And based on the limitation, better to choose the high quality of every part of the conveyor belt to prevent always change it. Change a belt needs long time and energy, will bring large influence for the industry productivity so always don’t want to save money by the poor quality with poor price.
STORAGE, HANDLING, AND INSTALLING A NEW BELT
After choose the right conveyor belt as your exact situation. Then is the delivery and handling steps for such a large goods. After the belt passes the manufacturing points of curing and inspection, it is wound on a 150mm to 300mm diameter steel, wood or compressed sawdust core with a square bar-hole. Heavy gauge polyethylene plastic is then wrapped around the roll and securely strapped to prevent damage during shipment. Must be keep all package well till the belt arrive the install site because it is too large, if unroll it during shipment, manual power cannot pack it well without rolling and package machine.
Figure 2 Rubber belting is wound on a wood core with a square bar-hole.
BELT STORAGE AND HANDLING
In order to assure successful installation of your belt at site, please remembering these important points:
- Check for specifications right or not and any damage as soon as the belt is received.
- Review the Packing List to be sure this is the belt you have ordered.
- NEVER DROP THE BELT during your second or third transport.
- Move belt by rolling (in the same direction as it was wound on core); moving on a skid; or hoisting with a bar through the core and a spreader. Surely if you have a crane or any other assistant equipment can move it in air without contact ground will be better.
- Store belt in a cool dry location with a temperature between 10°C and 20°C and a relative humidity between 20% and 70%. Or some other special temperature as the supplier requirements on the conveyor belt instruction.
- Leave belt packaging on belt as protection from oils, solvents, corrosive liquids, ozone and sunlight.
- Store belt in an upright position, preferably on a stand with each roll supported by a bar through its packing core. Prevent accidental rolling by blocking.
- The best is you can install it soon as your schedule process.
Conveyor belting should be handled very carefully during unloading. If it is dropped or handled roughly, the protective package could break, causing the belt to unroll in a telescoping twist. Once telescoping has occurred, re-rolling properly without any equipment help is almost impossible, especially your unrolling place is on the mountain hillside or underground. So must be very very careful for this problem.
Moving the belt by rolling any great distance is not recommended. If it must be rolled, roll in the direction the belt is wound. Rolling belt in the opposite direction can cause it to loosen and telescope. The preferred way to move a belt is with a hoisting bar and a sling or cables. If cables are used protect belt edges with special spreader bars or short wooden planks. A sling should never be used around the circumference of a roll of belting. Slings are very unstable and can cause personal injury or belt damage.
Avoid storing at temperature extremes. Even at temperatures a little below 5°C than its require temperature the rubber compounds can harden or stiffen. So better read the instruction coming with the belt to prevent self wrong stock damage the conveyor belt. When put into use, the belt may take a while to adjust to the system. Belts with Neoprene covers are especially subject to stiffening at temperatures below 5°C. Prolonged mild temperatures are required to restore its flexibility. But also have high temperature resistant conveyor belt can have more easier stock environment so please strict as the instruction. If still confused about the stock way please check the supplier or the manufacturer to confirm this issue.
For normal standard conveyor belt, at temperatures over 32°C for an extended period of time, belting can undergo softening, aging, and lowered impact resistance.
Belting should be stored out of direct sunlight whenever possible. To minimize the possibility of ozone attack, belt should be stored some distance from electric generators or arc welders. Unused belt should be stored in its protective packaging until ready for use. Still, the best way is use it quickly as soon as received.
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